Study on Performance and Emission of Diesel Engine Using Palm Oil Biofuel-Diesel Blends


  • Asnawi Asnawi Departement of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh
  • Muhammad Muhammad Departement of Chemical Engineering, Malikussaleh University
  • Abdul Rahman Departement of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Malikussaleh
  • Nurul Islami Departement of Material Engineering, University of Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Indonesia



Biodiesel, Gas Emission, Diesel Engine, Unburn Fuel


The addition of biofuel to diesel increases the fuel's stability, density, viscosity, energy content, and cetane number Blending biodiesel and diesel improves the viscosity of the combined fuel in comparison to diesel fuel. Recently, studies on optimizing the use of biodiesel diesel fuel have begun to examine the effects on diesel engine components and the energy conversion efficiency of biodiesel fuel use. The addition of supplements from other natural fuels is an effective option to improve energy conversion efficiency, but the blending effect causes changes in fuel properties. Therefore, further analysis is needed to meet the fuel standards used in diesel engines. This study is to obtain a clearer analysis of the effect of biofuel addition on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions. Measurements of experiment variables such as Torque, thermal efficiency, power, bsfc, and gas emission obtained from sensors installed in each part of the laboratory scale of diesel engine. The result shows blends of biofuel and diesel can be used as alternative fuels in conventional diesel engines. The variation of power generated by both of fuel mixture shows average power without any major changes.  The thermal efficiency of 30% biofuel average is better across all engine speed variations whereas the carbon monoxide variation decreases towards the same amount at 3000 rpm.


H. Aydin and C. İlkılıç, "Effect of ethanol blending with biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions in a CI engine," Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 1199-1204, 2010/07/01/ 2010.

A. M. Syam, L. Maulinda, and F. Haspita, "Methanolysis of Mixed Crop Oils (Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas L.) into Biodiesel: Kinetics Study," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, vol. 8, pp. 440-448, 2017.

S. M. Krishna, P. Abdul Salam, M. Tongroon, and N. Chollacoop, "Performance and emission assessment of optimally blended biodiesel-diesel-ethanol in diesel engine generator," Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 155, pp. 525-533, 2019/06/05/ 2019.

S. Dharma, H. C. Ong, H. H. Masjuki, A. H. Sebayang, and A. S. Silitonga, "An overview of engine durability and compatibility using biodiesel–bioethanol–diesel blends in compression-ignition engines," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 128, pp. 66-81, 2016/11/15/ 2016.

J. Liang, Q. Zhang, Q. Ma, Z. Chen, and Z. Zheng, "Effect of various ethanol/diesel cosolvents addition on combustion and emission characteristics of a CRDI heavy diesel engine," Energy Reports, vol. 8, pp. 735-748, 2022/11/01/ 2022.

A. Praptijanto, A. Muharam, A. Nur, and Y. Putrasari, "Effect of Ethanol Percentage for Diesel Engine Performance Using Virtual Engine Simulation Tool," Energy Procedia, vol. 68, pp. 345-354, 2015/04/01/ 2015.

N. Yilmaz, "Comparative analysis of biodiesel–ethanol–diesel and biodiesel–methanol–diesel blends in a diesel engine," Energy, vol. 40, pp. 210-213, 2012/04/01/ 2012.

H. Y. Kim, J. C. Ge, and N. J. Choi, "Effects of ethanol–diesel on the combustion and emissions from a diesel engine at a low idle speed," Applied Sciences, vol. 10, p. 4153, 2020.

S. Pinzi, I. López, D. E. Leiva-Candia, M. D. Redel-Macías, J. M. Herreros, A. Cubero-Atienza, et al., "Castor oil enhanced effect on fuel ethanol-diesel fuel blend properties," Applied Energy, vol. 224, pp. 409-416, 2018/08/15/ 2018.

A. Nur, Y. Putrasari, W. B. Santoso, T. Kosasih, and I. K. Reksowardojo, "Performance Characteristic of Indirect Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel-bioethanol Using Uniplot Software," Energy Procedia, vol. 68, pp. 167-176, 2015/04/01/ 2015.

A. Taghizadeh-Alisaraei and A. Rezaei-Asl, "The effect of added ethanol to diesel fuel on performance, vibration, combustion and knocking of a CI engine," Fuel, vol. 185, pp. 718-733, 2016/12/01/ 2016.

J. S. Rosa, G. D. Telli, C. R. Altafini, P. R. Wander, and L. A. Oliveira Rocha, "Dual fuel ethanol port injection in a compression ignition diesel engine: Technical analysis, environmental behavior, and economic viability," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 308, p. 127396, 2021/07/25/ 2021.

A. Cova-Bonillo, R. Patiño-Camino, J. J. Hernández, and M. Lapuerta, "Autoignition of ethanol-diesel blends: Is it worth dehydrating ethanol?," Fuel, vol. 317, p. 123523, 2022/06/01/ 2022.

M. Nour, H. Kosaka, S. Sato, M. Bady, A. K. Abdel-Rahman, and K. Uchida, "Effect of ethanol/water blends addition on diesel fuel combustion in RCM and DI diesel engine," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 149, pp. 228-243, 2017/10/01/ 2017.

C. R. Ferguson and A. Kirkpatrick, Internal combustion engines : applied thermosciences, Third edition. ed. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.

V. Ganesan, Internal combustion engines: McGraw Hill Education (India) Pvt Ltd, 2012.

S. Iliev, "A Comparison of Ethanol and Methanol Blending with Gasoline Using a 1-D Engine Model," Procedia Engineering, vol. 100, pp. 1013-1022, 2015/01/01/ 2015.