A Monitoring System for Aquaponics Based on Internet of Things


  • Munirul Ula Department of Information Technology, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia
  • Rizal Tjut Adek Department of Informatics, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia
  • Bustami Bustami Department of Informatics, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia
  • Syibbran Mulaesyi Department of Informatics, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Bayu Juhri Department of Informatics, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia




Internet of Things, Aquaponics, monitoring system, fish and Plant Growth


Finding suitable water sources for fish and plant cultivation appears to be difficult. In addition, land scarcity is decreasing agricultural productivity, so it is crucial to combine land and water conservation technology with various vegetable varieties for optimal yields. Aquaponics is a sustainable farming method that combines aquaculture and hydroponics. This water system must regularly circulate through the growing medium to provide the plants with nutrient-rich, filtered water.  This research develops a smart aquaponics system that uses a mobile application accessible via the internet to control and monitor acidity, water level, water temperature, and fish nutrition.  In this system, sensors are installed to collect data, which is then sent to the Ubuntu IoT Cloud server, which can be accessed in real time over the internet. So as to preserve the purity and circulation of water. In this study, the waterlevel sensor has a 100% measurement success rate, the pH sensor has a 93 % measurement success rate, and the temperature sensor has a 96% measurement success rate. The temperature and pH range of the pond water are optimal for aquaponics at 25 to 35 degrees Celsius and 6,5 to 7,5, respectively, and the aquaponics monitoring system is functioning properly. A suggestion for future research is the development of an aquaponic system that can be modified based on the type of plant and its nutritional requirements.


J. Porras, J. Pänkäläinen, A. Knutas, and J. Khakurel, “Security in the internet of things – A systematic mapping study,” in Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2018, vol. 2018-January, pp. 3750–3759, doi: 10.24251/hicss.2018.473.

F. D. Garcia, G. de Koning Gans, and R. Verdult, “Wirelessly lockpicking a smart card reader,” Int. J. Inf. Secur., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 403–420, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s10207-014-0234-0.

R. Verdult, F. D. Garcia, and J. Balasch, “Gone in 360 seconds: Hijacking with hitag2,” in Proceedings of the 21st USENIX Security Symposium, 2012, pp. 237–252.

S. Raza, L. Wallgren, and T. Voigt, “SVELTE: Real-time intrusion detection in the Internet of Things,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 2661–2674, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.04.014.

S. Li, L. Da Xu, and S. Zhao, “The internet of things: a survey,” Inf. Syst. Front., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 243–259, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s10796-014-9492-7.

R. Verdult, D. F. Garcia, and B. Ege, “Dismantling Megamos Crypto: Wirelessly Lockpicking a Vehicle Immobilizer,” in Supplement to the 22nd USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 13), 2015, pp. 703–718, [Online]. Available:

https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity15/technical-sessions/presentation/verdult%5Cnhttps:// www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15_supplement.pdf.

L. T. Khrais, “IoT and blockchain in the development of smart cities,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 153–159, 2020, doi: 10.14569/ijacsa.2020.0110220.

N. Zainuddin, M. Daud, S. Ahmad, M. Maslizan, and S. A. L. Abdullah, “A study on privacy issues in internet of things (IoT),” in 2021 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy, CSP 2021, 2021, pp. 96–100, doi: 10.1109/CSP51677.2021.9357592.

R. S. Mohammed, A. H. Mohammed, and F. N. Abbas, “Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things (IoT): Survey,” 2nd Int. Conf. Electr. Commun. Comput. Power Control Eng. ICECCPCE 2019, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 204–208, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ICECCPCE46549.2019.203774.

A. Mosenia and N. K. Jha, “A comprehensive study of security of internet-of-things,” IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 586–602, 2017, doi: 10.1109/TETC.2016.2606384.

M. T. Lazarescu, “Design of a WSN platform for long-term environmental monitoring for IoT applications,”

IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Circuits Syst., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 45–54, 2013, doi:


M. M. Kermani, M. Zhang, A. Raghunathan, and N. K. Jha, “Emerging frontiers in embedded security,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on VLSI Design, 2013, pp. 203–208, doi: 10.1109/VLSID.2013.222.

K. Su, J. Li, and H. Fu, “Smart city and the applications,” 2011 Int. Conf. Electron. Commun. Control. ICECC 2011 - Proc., pp. 1028–1031, 2011, doi: 10.1109/ICECC.2011.6066743.

M. Prawira, H. T. Sukmana, V. Amrizal, and U. Rahardja, “A Prototype of Android-Based Emergency Management Application,” 2019, doi: 10.1109/CITSM47753.2019.8965337.

R. Kumar and S. Rajalakshmi, “Mobile sensor cloud computing: Controlling and securing data processing over smart environment through Mobile Sensor Cloud Computing (MSCC),” in Proceedings - 2013 International Conference on Computer Sciences and Applications, CSA 2013, 2013, pp. 687–694, doi:


M. Bansal, M. Nanda, and M. N. Husain, “Security and privacy Aspects for Internet of Things (IoT),” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies, ICICT 2021. pp. 199–204, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ICICT50816.2021.9358665.

P. A. Sunarya, F. Andriyani, Henderi, and U. Rahardja, “Algorithm automatic full time equivalent, case study of health service,” Int. J. Adv. Trends Comput. Sci. Eng., vol. 8, no. 1.5 Specia, pp. 387–391, 2019, doi: 10.30534/ijatcse/2019/6281.52019.

P. Podder, M. R. H. Mondal, S. Bharati, and P. K. Paul, “Review on the Security Threats of Internet of Things,” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 176, no. 41. pp. 37–45, 2020, doi:


M. Mozaffari-Kermani, S. Sur-Kolay, A. Raghunathan, and N. K. Jha, “Systematic poisoning attacks on and defenses for machine learning in healthcare,” IEEE J. Biomed. Heal. Informatics, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1893–1905, 2015, doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2014.2344095.

A. M. Nia, M. Mozaffari-Kermani, S. Sur-Kolay, A. Raghunathan, and N. K. Jha, “Energy-Efficient Long-term Continuous Personal Health Monitoring,” IEEE Trans. Multi-Scale Comput. Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 85–98, 2015, doi: 10.1109/TMSCS.2015.2494021.

E. R. Naru, H. Saini, and M. Sharma, “A recent review on lightweight cryptography in IoT,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud, I-SMAC 2017, 2017, pp. 887–890, doi: 10.1109/I-SMAC.2017.8058307.

N. F. Rozy, R. Ramadhiansya, P. A. Sunarya, and U. Rahardja, “Performance Comparison Routing Protocol

AODV, DSDV, and AOMDV with Video Streaming in Manet,” 2019, doi:


E. McKenna, I. Richardson, and M. Thomson, “Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications,” Energy Policy, vol. 41, pp. 807–814, 2012, doi:


T. Martin, M. Hsiao, D. Ha, and J. Krishnaswami, “Denial-of-service attacks on battery-powered mobile computers,” in Proceedings - Second IEEE Annual Conference on Pervasive Computing and

Communications, PerCom, 2004, pp. 309–318, doi: 10.1109/PERCOM.2004.1276868.

R. Bonetto, N. Bui, V. Lakkundi, A. Olivereau, A. Serbanati, and M. Rossi, “Secure communication for smart IoT objects: Protocol stacks, use cases and practical examples,” in 2012 IEEE International

Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, WoWMoM 2012 - Digital

Proceedings, 2012, pp. 1–7, doi: 10.1109/WoWMoM.2012.6263790.

L. Tawalbeh, F. Muheidat, M. Tawalbeh, and M. Quwaider, “IoT privacy and security: Challenges and solutions,” Appl. Sci., vol. 10, no. 12, p. 4102 10 3390 10124102, 2020, doi: 10.3390/APP10124102.

J. Sánchez, A. Mallorquí, A. Briones, A. Zaballos, and G. Corral, “An integral pedagogical strategy for teaching and learning iot cybersecurity,” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 20, no. 14, pp. 1–35, 2020, doi: 10.3390/s20143970.

K. Petersen, R. Feldt, S. Mujtaba, and M. Mattsson, “Systematic mapping studies in software engineering,” in 12th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2008, 2008, pp. 68–77, doi: 10.14236/ewic/ease2008.8.

R. T. Adek and M. Ula, “A Survey on the Accuracy of Machine Learning Techniques for Intrusion and Anomaly Detection on Public Data Sets,” in 2020 International Conference on Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Business Analytics, DATABIA 2020 - Proceedings, 2020, pp. 19–27, doi:


Y. Cherdantseva and J. Hilton, “A reference model of information assurance & security,” in Proceedings 2013 International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, ARES 2013, 2013, pp. 546–555, doi: 10.1109/ARES.2013.72.

H. Salmani and M. M. Tehranipoor, “Vulnerability Analysis of a Circuit Layout to Hardware Trojan

Insertion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1214–1225, 2016, doi:


L. Lu et al., “KeyLiSterber: Inferring Keystrokes on QWERTY Keyboard of Touch Screen through Acoustic Signals,” in Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM, 2019, vol. 2019-April, pp. 775–783, doi:


F. Stajano and R. Anderson, “The resurrecting duckling: Security issues for ad-hoc wireless networks,” in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2000, vol. 1796, pp. 172–182, doi: 10.1007/10720107_24.

S. W. Liew, N. F. M. Sani, M. T. Abdullah, R. Yaakob, and M. Y. Sharum, “An effective security alert mechanism for real-time phishing tweet detection on Twitter,” Comput. Secur., vol. 83, pp. 201–207, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cose.2019.02.004.

Y. Michalevsky, A. Schulman, G. A. Veerapandian, D. Boneh, and G. Nakibly, “Powerspy: Location tracking using mobile device power analysis,” in Proceedings of the 24th USENIX Security Symposium, 2015, pp. 785–800.

A. Juels, “RFID security and privacy: A research survey,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 381–394, 2006, doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2005.861395.

M. Lehtonen, D. Ostojic, A. Ilic, and F. Michahelles, “Securing RFID systems by detecting tag cloning,” in

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and

Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2009, vol. 5538 LNCS, pp. 291–308, doi:


D. N. Duc and K. Kim, “Defending RFID authentication protocols against DoS attacks,” Comput.

Commun., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 384–390, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.06.014.

F. D. Garcia, D. Oswald, T. Kasper, and P. Pavlidès, “Lock it and still lose it – on the (in)security of automotive remote keyless entry systems,” in Proceedings of the 25th USENIX Security Symposium, 2016, pp. 929–944.

E. Marin, D. Singelée, F. D. Garcia, T. Chothia, R. Willems, and B. Preneel, “On the (in)security of the latest generation implantable cardiac defibrillators and how to secure them,” in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2016, vol. 5-9-Decemb, pp. 226–236, doi: 10.1145/2991079.2991094.

A. N. Nowroz, K. Hu, F. Koushanfar, and S. Reda, “Novel techniques for high-sensitivity hardware trojan detection using thermal and power maps,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Des. Integr. Circuits Syst., vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1792–1805, 2014, doi: 10.1109/TCAD.2014.2354293.

B. Biggio, B. Nelson, and P. Laskov, “Poisoning attacks against support vector machines,” in Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2012, 2012, vol. 2, pp. 1807–1814.

J. Van den Herrewegen and F. D. Garcia, “Beneath the bonnet: A breakdown of diagnostic security,” in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and

Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2018, vol. 11098 LNCS, pp. 305–324, doi:


C. M. M. Stone, T. Chothia, and F. D. Garcia, “Spinner: Semi-Automatic detection of pinning without hostname verification,” in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2017, vol. Part F1325, pp. 176–188, doi: 10.1145/3134600.3134628.

C. Hicks, F. D. Garcia, and D. Oswald, “Dismantling the AUT64 Automotive Cipher,” IACR Trans.

Cryptogr. Hardw. Embed. Syst., vol. 2018, no. 2, pp. 46–69, 2018, doi: 10.46586/tches.v2018.i2.46-69.

R. Verdult, G. De Koning Gans, and F. D. Garcia, “A toolbox for RFID protocol analysis,” in Proceedings 2012 4th International EURASIP Workshop on RFID Technology, RFID 2012, 2012, pp. 27–34, doi: 10.1109/RFID.2012.19.

M. Kumar, “How to hack WiFi password from smart doorbells.” 2016, [Online]. Available: http://thehackernews.com/2016/01/ doorbell-hacking-wifi-pasword.html.

A. Chapman, “Hacking into Internet Connected Light Bulbs,” 04.07. 2014, [Online]. Available: http://www.contextis.com/resources/ blog/hacking-internet-connected-light-bulbs/.