Keywords:bacterial vaginosis, clue cells, whift test
Introduction: The vagina is normally inhabited by a number of organism, including Lactobacillus acidophilus, diphteroids, Candida and others. Normal vaginal flora contains aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus species being the prominent microorganism with number more than 95% of the total bacteria present. Vaginal discharge can be classified into physiologic and pathologic discharge. Discussion: Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical syndrome caused by the alteration of Lactobacillus Sp that producing hydrogen peroxide with anaerobic bacteria that caused the disruption of the normal flora balance. Risk factors of bacterial vaginosis are sexual activity, vaginal douching, genetic, vaginal manipulation, smoking and using the intrauterine device. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis can be enforced by the gram staining and the calculation of Nugent score (positive diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis if nogent score 7-10). Amsel score can also be conducted if the Nugent score examination cannot be performed. Amsel score criteria consists of white homogen vaginal discharge, fishy odor (positive Whift test), pH > 4.5, and the finding of clue cell. The discovery of 3 citeria of Amsel can confirm the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis including systemic and topical therapy. Systemic antibiotic such as metronidazole and clindamycin is effective against the anaerob bacteria. Conclusion: bacterial vaginosis in an abnormal condition in the vagina caused by the overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria replacing the Lactobacillus hominis that caused the change of normal acidic pH vagina into alkaline.
Amsel criteria and Nugent score can be requested to confirm the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Proper diagnosis and treatment with metronidazole and clindamycin can improve the disease.
Prawirohardjo, S. Ilmu Kandungan. (PT. Bina Pustaka, 2014).
Yudin, M. H. & Money, D. M. Screening and Management of Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Canada 39, e184–e191 (2017).
Russo, R., Karadja, E. & De Seta, F. Evidence-based mixture containing Lactobacillus strains and lactoferrin to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis: A double blind, placebo controlled, randomised clinical trial. Benef. Microbes 10, 19–26 (2019).
Javed, A., Parvaiz, F. & Manzoor, S. Bacterial Vaginosis: An insight into the prevalence, alternative regimen treatments and it’s associated resistance patterns. Microb. Pathog. 127, 21–30 (2019).
Jain, J. P. et al. Factors in the HIV risk environment associated with bacterial vaginosis among HIV-negative female sex workers who inject drugs in the Mexico-United States border region. BMC Public Health 18, 1–10 (2018).
Goldsmith, L. A. et al. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (The McGrawHill, 2019).
Greenbaum, S., Greenbaum, G., Moran-Gilad, J. & Weintruab, A. Y. Ecological dynamics of the vaginal microbiome in relation to health and disease. Am. J. Obstet.
Gynecol. 220, 324–335 (2019).
Han, C. et al. Aerobic vaginitis in late pregnancy and outcomes of pregnancy. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 38, 233–239 (2019).
Muzny, C. A. & Schwebke, J. R. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Vaginosis: Discussion of Current Hypotheses. J. Infect. Dis. 214, S1–S5 (2016).
Verstraelen, H. & Swidsinski, A. The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: Implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment: 2018 update. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 32, 38–42 (2019).
Djuanda, A., Hamzah, M. & Aisah, S. Ilmu Penyakit Kulit dan Kelamin. (Indonesia University, 2010).
Coleman, J. S. & Gaydos, C. A. Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: An update. J. Clin. Microbiol. 56, 1–9 (2018).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Wizal Putri Mellaratna, Della Vega Nisha Ayuna
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
n order for Proceedings of Malikussaleh International Conference on Health and Disaster Medicine (MICOHEDMED) to publish and disseminate research articles, we need non-exclusive publishing rights (transfered from author(s) to publisher). This is determined by a publishing agreement between the Author(s) and Proceedings of Malikussaleh International Conference on Health and Disaster Medicine (MICOHEDMED). This agreement deals with the transfer or license of the copyright of publishing to Proceedings of Malikussaleh International Conference on Health and Disaster Medicine (MICOHEDMED), while Authors still retain significant rights to use and share their own published articles. Proceedings of Malikussaleh International Conference on Health and Disaster Medicine (MICOHEDMED) supports the need for authors to share, disseminate and maximize the impact of their research and these rights, in any databases.
As a proceeding Author, you have rights for a large range of uses of your article, including use by your employing institute or company. These Author rights can be exercised without the need to obtain specific permission. Authors publishing in Proceedings of Malikussaleh International Conference on Health and Disaster Medicine (MICOHEDMED) proceedings have wide rights to use their works for teaching and scholarly purposes without needing to seek permission, including:
- use for classroom teaching by Author or Author's institution and presentation at a meeting or conference and distributing copies to attendees;
- use for internal training by author's company;
- distribution to colleagues for their reseearch use;
- use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works;
- inclusion in a thesis or dissertation;
- reuse of portions or extracts from the article in other works (with full acknowledgement of final article);
- preparation of derivative works (other than commercial purposes) (with full acknowledgement of final article);
- voluntary posting on open web sites operated by author or author’s institution for scholarly purposes,
(but it should follow the open access license of Creative Common CC-by-SA License).
Authors/Readers/Third Parties can read, print and download, redistribute or republish the article (e.g. display in a repository), translate the article, download for text and data mining purposes, reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works, sell or re-use for commercial purposes, remix, transform, or build upon the material, they must distribute their contributions under the same license as the original Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA).